We currently have one question tagged with cognitive-disorder. The tag was probably created just for that question and has no tag wiki excerpt. The question's background part mentions "cognitive insults" and describes specific difficulties encountered while learning foreign languages (especially, learning to read fluently in a foreign writing system), but it is not clear what the exact "cognitive shortcoming" is.
Wikipedia quotes the following part of DSM-IV's definition of cognitive disorder:
a significant impairment of cognition or memory that represents a marked deterioration from a previous level of function.
I think this does not match what the above question is talking about. So the question probably needs a different tag. The problem now is what this tag should be:
- Learning disability (LD) is a term used in the USA for things like dyslexia and dyscalculia.
- In the UK, "learning disability" appears to refer to problems related to reduced intellectual ability, so the term specific learning difficulty (SpLD) is used to group difficulties such as dyslexia and dyscalculia. (See the Wikipedia article on learning disability.)
If we do keep the tag "cognitive-disorder", I suggest the following tag wiki excerpt:
[Questions related to] significant impairments of cognition or memory that affect language learning.
We then need to ask the OP of the above question whether the tag applies there.
Update (January 2017): cognitive-disorder now has the following tag wiki excerpt:
Questions relating to cognitive disorders that (may) affect language learning.